Radio-NAV = Radio Navigation

The Radio-Stack inside a C172p

Navigation-Systems are very different in type, construction, and integration - but they are all the same in function! Here in the Cessna you see the "basic style" in which each function had it's own unique unit, which is integrated into the instrument-panel and operated from the unit itself. In modern aircrafts those "functional units" are more and more "black boxes" which are installed somewhere out of sight, and their displays and operating components are often integrated into other units. Let us learn about the functions based on the neatly arranged unites of our well equipped Cessna.

We will describe the Units in the order they are physically installed, from top to bottom (see the picture above):

Audio Control Unit

All the Radio Units do produce some audible signals, may it be words, Morse-codes, or any other kind of signal. All these sounds on one loudspeaker at the same time may not really be understandable by the human ear. The "Audio Control Unit" enables the Pilot to switch on/off the audio-output of each device to unique loudspeakers or keep them quiet. In our Cessna this unit is non functional (yet) - it can be switched etc. - but the sound is not differentiated! But because each unit has its own individual Audio-Control button, that is no major problem for us!
The rotary-switch at the left side connects the microphone with the transmitter wanted.

Below that there are the 3 lights with special meanings during the final approach:
Outer-Marker: The blue light and a sound of 400 Hz, positioned between 4-7 mi out
Middle-Marker: The amber light and a sound of 1300 Hz, positioned between 0.5 to 0.8 mi out
Inner Marker: The white light and a sound of 3000 Hz - signaling you are over the Touch-Down-Area of the runway!



A "Non Directional Beacon" (the picture on the right) basically broadcasts a signal that says “I’m over here”, which the "Automatic Direction Finder" (the picture on the left) inside the plane receives and thus tells you, the pilot, “the station is over there” (i.e. it points into that direction with the needle (picture in the center)). For that to happen you just tune the ADF to the NDB-frequency and watch the ADF-Display (needle). (the picture in the center). In the above case the NDB would be 20° to the right -- independent of the actual course! To get to the NDB we just follow the yellow pointer! In this case we would turn right until the pointer is in line with the ocher triangle at the top of the instrument - for that procedure the compass rose is of no importance at all -- you may set it as you like!

You find the location of the NDBs on charts marked with a red circle surrounded by a red cloud (see the right picture above, that one is from the MPmap). Like VOR's, NDB's have a full name (e.g. "REIGA"), and an ID (e.g. "LV"), and of course a frequency (e.g. 374).

Like with VOR's we need to hear the indent to be sure we’re really tuned into the right station! Like all radios, the ADF receiver has a dedicated volume control, labeled “VOL”. The volume control also functions as an on/off switch, so if you turn it all the way counter-clockwise, it will shut the receiver off. Unfortunately, at the time of writing, the indent function does not work, so for now you cannot verify the NDB-Station by listening to the transmitted Morse-Cod. So double-check that you are on course by other means, e.g. MPmap or Map

Notice there’s no OBS to set for an ADF — the needle just points to the station.

Operating: (Compare the pictures in the heading)

When using the ADF/NDB for navigation, be aware that you always just follow the pointer directing you to the transmitter - you are not following a unique course or radial (like e.g. when using a VOR)! See what happens if e.g. there are considerable crosswinds:
We will fly to that "green NDB" directly north of us (360°):

(a) shows us the "perfect" setup: It is a wonderful day with no wind: So we just turn till the needle points straight up, and take some rest till we are at the NDB. This, by the way, is the only situation in which heading and course are the same!

(b) shows us the more realistic situation: Usually there will be some wind, in our case coming from the West (left). So if we just set the heading (e.g. let George hold it) and take a rest -- ... --- until we are out of fuel! We very definitely will never arrive at the NDB!

(c) this time we do not just set the heading - but we continue to follow the ADF-needle. And doing that we will notice that over time we do change our heading - actually we are not flying a "straight course" but a somewhat funny curve! But at least we will arrive at the NDB - somehow!

(d) so we should find a compromise between heading and course! If you were good in mathematics you could calculate which heading you have to hold to fly the wanted (360°) course. Real Student-Pilots have to do/learn that - but for our fun-flying that might not be necessary. Just watch the heading and the ADF-pointer: Try to find a heading at which the ADF-pointer remains stable! i.e. when the ADF-pointer deviates to the left try a heading that will not just bring the needle to the top again - but a little further, e.g. 340° instead of the course 360°. With some training you might get better that way then when calculating - because my experiences were: Whenever I had calculated the right heading for the reported wind - the wind changed!

for an application of this see the "IFR X-Country", chapter "1) From KRHV to the V334"
You may find further detailed informations on


The C172p is equipped very generously with 2 identical Communication/Navigation radios! Each of those 2 consists of 3 units:
  1. The "COM"-radio (the left half of the above unit): That is the radio for communicating with the outside via MPchat or FGCOM, etc., may it be with other "Multiplayers" or with "Artificial-Intelligence Functions" (like e.g. AI-ATC).
  2. The "NAV"-radio (the right half of above unit): That is the radio for Navigation to tune in to VOR and/or ILS transmitters.
  3. The "NAV"-display" (the right picture)

The Controls of the Radios:

"Easy -SetUP":

With the GUI  "Menu → Equipment → Radio Settings“ you can set all Radio-units by typing in the wanted numbers:

    Radi Setting

In the example above there are set all values as used in the two "Cross-Country" flights, as well during the VFR Cross Country as also for the IFR Cross Country. In detail that are:

Selected / Active Standby / Preselected

VOR SJC (+radial 009)
only NAV1 can be used for VOR- and ILS-approaches when using the Autopilot!!
VOR-OAK (+radial 114)
VOR-ECA (R=229)
the radial "229" for the VOR-ECA must be set later, when that VOR gets switched to "selected"!
KLVK – acronym title="Initial Approach Fix">IAF REIGA
Reference TRACY
See the chapter "IFR approach"
In the very rare case of a DME,
that is not integrated into a VOR 

In the newest FlightGear Releases there may also be a Transponder-field to be used with VATSIM. That one then should be set to 7000 for VFR - otherwise as advised by ATC
here set for the Carrier "Eisenhauer",
at  Marseille (France)

With the button "ATC Services in range" you open another GUI (formerly located under "Menu → ATC/AI → Frequencies):

When that GUI opens it will directly present you the "nearby" airports in the upper line. Those you can select by mouse-click.
But you also can input any airport (ICAO) and check its frequencies.
e.g.: Click onto "KRHV", that will present a sub-GUI with the available frequencies. Set the ones wanted into the COM's in above "Easy Setup". e.g.:
125.20 → into COM1 Selected, to first listen to the ATIS at KRHV
119.80 → into COM1 Standby, which you will use after that (notice: There is no "GROUND" at KRHV!)
After a few seconds (voice-stream loading-time) you then should hear the ATIS informations - if not check your COM settings and/or general Audio-settings, see e.g.  "Menu → File → Sound Configuration

For FGCOM-User: The frequencies shown here are the generally available frequencies in FlightGear, not all of them are also available in FGCOM. For the available FGCOM frequencies see the data-file "phonebook.txt“ in your FGCOM-directory! In windows that is commonly inside the $FG_ROOT, in Linux it is mostly inside your $FG_HOME.

The NAV-Radio = VOR & ILS

The NAV-Radios are used for wide range radio-navigation (VOR) as well as for unique approaches (ILS). So you see that VOR and ILS are technically very much the same - let us see what the differences are:
Please find in the following first some general explanations and then several descriptions of how to use them (see Standard_procedures). For this we will use again the area around the San-Francisco Bay, that we also use in our flight trainings (e.g. --> KSJC):

In the graphic on the left you see 2 VORs, named "OAK" and "SJC". Let us analyze line by line what a typical aeronautical chart tells us about e.g. the "VOR SJC" (see it outlined in the right lower corner):

  • VOR-DME: tells us, that this is a civil VOR with an integrated DME. (In the left upper corner you see the example of a military VOR ==  the VORTAC "OAK").
  • SAN JOSE: is the full name name of that VOR (which you cannot use e.g. in a  Route-planer)
  • 114.1 Ch 88 SJC ...
    • 114.1 : is the frequency you would have to set into your NAV-radio
    • Ch 88 : is a frequency for another type of NAV-radio (which we will not use)
    • SJC : is the UID for that VOR (which you would set into a route-planer)
    • "...  .---   -.-." is the Morse-code for "SJC", which is transmitted and should be used by you to identify the station! You hear those dashes and dots as longer and shorter sounds on your radio - between each letter there is little pause.
During the flight the OBS of the VOR tells the Pilot on which magnetic bearing to or from a VOR he is flying. Most VOR's will indicate also the distance (see DME) to it. The bearings are in magnetic degrees and are called "radials". In the graphic on the left you see 2 bearings:
1. "114° FROM" coming from the VOR OAK
2. "002° FROM" coming from VOR SJC

Those two radials happen to meet somewhere, and this unique meeting point is given a special name: "MISON". Thus it is a very important "FIX"-point in the Bay-Area! Such a FIX is not seen during strict VFR-navigation, because it is just a crossing of two radio-signals - so do not try any sightseeing for it! By defining such FIXes traffic can be routed not just by defining VORs as way-points, but also by the crossing of two radials. Those FIXes are very often used as "waypoints" in Flight-plans, as Reporting-Points for ATC, etc.

OBI: The VOR/ILS-Indicator:

As already mentioned before, there is an additional instrument for the VOR, that we will explain now:
OBS = "Omni Bearing Selector": When you rotate the knob at the lower left corner, the wind-rose-scale inside the instrument will rotate too - placing the currently selected radial at the very top of the scale: See e.g. the value "N" (= 000° or 360°) in the picture. With this setting you fly with a heading of 360° "TO" (=North) or "FROM" (=South) the VOR-transmitter.

CDI = "Course Deviation Indicator": This is the vertical needle inside the VOR-display. If that needle is vertically centered, it tells you that you are on the selected radial -  if not, it indicates into which direction you have to correct your heading in order to return to the radial.

GS = "Glide Slope": The horizontal needle in the instrument functions like the CDI, but in the vertical direction! Watch it: A "Glide-Slope" is only available from some ILS transmitters, and its signal usually reaches only 10 nm out from the "Touch down Area" of the runway.  The GS becomes active a long time later then the CDI - which is active already 50 mi out and more!

TO/FROM: Do you see that little cutout at the right side of the center, now indicating "TO"? In that window will appear a "TO" when the radial brings you towards the VOR - otherwise it will show a FROM (or short "FR"). If neither "TO" nor "FR" is indicated you are not inside a valid range to a VOR with that frequency!

  To make it very clear: The "TO/FROM" indication does NOT indicate in what direction you actually fly - it just tells you in what direction the radial points - so yes: Although when flying on a radial "FR 270" and a centered CDI you may very well be flying towards the VOR! But in case you deviate from the radial, the CDI will indicate the needed correction reverse! Have a look at all 4 possibilities and there effects:

Your Position
Compass °
CDI function when flying eastbound:
TO 090 WEST of the VOR
normal: Showing left when you should correct to the left
FROM 270 WEST of the VOR 090°
reverse: Showing left when you should correct to the right
FROM 090 EAST of the VOR 090°
normal: Showing left when you should correct to the left
TO 270 EAST of the VOR 090°
reverse: Showing left when you should correct to the right

Let us try to analyze the above picture of the OBS: In that example we want to follow the radial "TO 002°" towards the VOR - i.e. pretty much to the magnetic North:

HSI: Horizontal Situation Indicator

The HSI is a combination of the OBI and the Heading indicator.

It is somewhat more expensive - and thus not in our c172p!

If you want to know more about it see:

To the end a short summary:
  The Compass and/or ADF show where your nose points to

shows the course!!
and helps you to stay on course,  even when not using an autopilot !!!!!

for an application of this see the "IFR X-Country" chapter "Following the V334 to SUNO.."
for more technical details see e.g.:

Standard VOR Procedures

Whenever looking for VOR's on navigational maps or MPmap etc. you should know the different types available, together with their symbols on aeronautical charts:

normales VOR Specifies a VOR without DME
DME Specifies a DME without VOR
VOR-DME Specifies a combined VOR-DME,
for both functions you need to set only the VOR frequency (the unique DME -frequency will be set automatically!)
Specifies a TACAN (= a military VOR), those always include a DME, but no VOR for civil usage!
VORTAC Specifies a VORTAC, the all-in-one solution: It combines the civil VOR-DME + the military TACAN!
It does have different frequencies for military and civil usage, and both set the unique DME-frequency automatically

Directly flying towards a VOR:

That means we are somewhere up in the air and want to fly to a VOR (found in MPmap, Map, Atlas, Aeronautical Charts, etc. -- or as advised by ATC):

Turning to a new direction over VOR

This time we do not just fly towards a VOR on a "TO-radial" as described above, but we want to change our course when at that VOR. Of course you could wait till you arrive at that VOR and then rotate your OBS to a new "FROM-radial" or start other actions there. But usually you are busy with other things at that point (reporting, getting new charts, etc.). Whatever time you need to do all that: It will look bad -- you always will fly a loop. Better, based on cost, time and looks, would be the following:

 Intercepting a radial to follow:

On most big airports you will find a VOR. By using a radial of that VOR you can directly intercept a radial and follow your most straight course to a given point - just find out which magnetic heading you need from the airport to the destination! That way you really get there, independent of cross-winds, Compass deviations, errors (e.g. parallax when reading the scales), etc. etc..

See the following example for such a procedure at the EDDF (Frankfurt, Germany) airport, when after TakeOff you want to follow the radial "FROM 270°":

Beispiel: Folge Radial nach Start
  • Before TakeOff set the VOR-FFM frequency 114.20 and the course=radial 270° into your OBS. (Just for learning: Notice that Frankfurt also had a big Military mission - so that VOR is mixed: See the function VORTAX and the frequency "114.20" for the civil operations and the TACAN "089X" for military users!)
  • After TakeOff (and clearance by ATC) go onto a heading that should intercept the wanted course in an angle between 30-60°, i.e. if the departure was
    • to the north: turn left  to a heading of about (270-30=) 240°
    • to the south: turn right to a heading of about (270+30=) 300°
The interception-angel of 30° is pretty ideal to intercept without overshooting - if the angle becomes bigger than 60° you definitely will overshoot and will need several retries prior to be centered on the radial!
  • Make sure that the OBS shows "FROM 270"! (Otherwise you may end up in Moskau instead of in Paris!).
  • Watch your instrument closely when approaching the interception point: As soon as the CDI-needle starts to move towards the center start turning to the heading set in the OBS (in this case 270°) and then follow the radial by keeping the CDI centered. e.g. if the CDI-needle moves left - turn left a little more. Start with about 10° (in this case hold a hdg of 260°) - if that does not cause the needle to start moving back into the center, increase the turn to the left, may be another 10°, and so on. But be patient: As you get further and further away from the VOR the time to see a change in the OBS will increase, because the difference (see the red circled "1") becomes larger and larger and thus the time for a noticeable change in numbers (i.e. instruments!) will increase!

DME">Define your position with 1 VOR + DME

You should verify what you did by watching the DME: Are you really getting closer or further away? What should it be?

Define your position with 2 VOR (NDB):

When we do not have a nice VOR with DME near by, then we can use two VORs (if they both are in range). We then set their frequencies into our 2 NAVS and turn both OBSs until both CDIs are centered. On an aeronautical chart you will already find the VORs with the compass-rose around it - so you just have to draw a straight line from the VOR-center through the wind-rose to the outside. The crossing point of the 2 lines is our current position. (I admit: Sitting in a jet cruising at Mach 2 will make that a little tricky - but right now we are in a C172p, where it might be a pleasure to learn that --> you will need it for your Pilot-License!).

Usage: I seldom use this method directly when flying - but rather the reverse when preparing a flight. e.g. if I plan to fly low in valleys between high mountains I define navigational points that way - and just verify my position during the flight. Then this procedure comes very handy to make sure you are in exactly that valley you wanted to be! (Yes: GPS (maybe even supported by the autopilot) is easier - but is it as much fun??)

Notice: The position will be the better the more the 2 VOR radials are close to a right angle - and the closer the VORs are to our route! Best it is when flying on the radial of one VOR and find another at about 90° to either side! For that we find an example in the next chapter.

Of course you can do the same with 1 VOR and 1 NDB or even 2 NDBs, if you make sure the NDB scales are set exactly to the actual Gyro-Compass-Heading (and stay in sync with it, in case you make a turn or similar!)! Then you can set the readings of the NDB pointers into the chart - but that will become significantly less precise! Also NDBs do not extend to far distances like VORs (although they may be very helpful in marking airports and special points in valleys!).

Finding a "FIX"-point

ILS (Instrument Landing System)

ILS-transmitters are always located directly at runways in order to guide incoming traffic to the "Touch Down Area" of a unique runway. They do function exactly like VOR's, but:
Did you notice: We did not mention a DME within the ILS - because technically there is none! For a DME you might use a VOR (in NAV2!) that is located on the airport - or look if there is a standalone DME near the ILS! See e.g.:

In KSFO you see the example of an "ideal " setup: There is a VOR-DME in the center of the Airport.  So here you can use the VOR as support to get you onto the ILS-localizer, and have a pretty exact distance measurement as well for the VOR as the for the ILS and or Glideslope! So you can use the your
  • NAV1 for the ILS
  • NAV2 for the VOR (inclusive DME)

In EDDf it is just a little more challenging. There also is a VOR - but a little outside, which is still good enough for aerial-navigation. But see the symbol - it does not have a DME! But there is a standalone DME in the center of the airport. (For that one is shown in FGFS only the military frequency. If you look into other (newer) navigational maps you see it has a distinct civil frequency of 115.9 MHz (see e.g.

That means you need to set 3 frequencies:
1) Set the VOR 114.2 into NAV2
2) Set the DME 115.9 into NAV1
3) Set the DME-Selector
first to "1" to get the DME 119.5 indicated in the DME-display
then switch to "HOLD" --> that holds the DME, even when changing the NAV-frequency
4) Set the ILS-frequency into NAV1

The procedure for an ILS-landing:
  1. Set the ILS frequency into the NAV - if you want to use the autopilot it must be the NAV-1!
  2. As explained above it is suggested also to set the localizer/radial to the runway heading
  3. Between 30 to 50 mi out, the ILS should become active, .i.e. the CDI starts to point into some direction AND the "TO" flag should get visible. Be aware of:
  4. In a range of 5 to 20 mi out you should intercept the ILS localizer. If your airport informations do not say otherwise do that a little higher then the pattern altitude, which usually is about 800 to 1000 ft above airport altitude.
  5. Follow the CDI on that altitude, till:
  6. Start the descent only AFTER the GS-needle crosses the centerline - from now on you can follow the needle (or activate the Autopilot GS)
  7. Being on "Final" you should notice on your instrument panel 3 signals before "Touch-Down":
    1. Outer-Marker: The blue light and a sound of 400 Hz, positioned between 4-7 mi out
    2. Middle-Marker: The amber light and a sound of 1300 Hz, positioned between 0.5 to 0.8 mi out
    3. Inner Marker: The white light and a sound of 3000 Hz - signaling you are over the Touch-Down-Area of the runway!
As an ATC I hear lots of excuses about a not working ILS etc. - so be assured that real technical problems are very, very rare (but famous Pilot-errors are not!) -- so do not be shocked if neither ATC, nor your instructor, nor the FAA will believe an accident report, based on a technical ILS-problem! Anyhow: You as pilot are responsible to take over manual if problems arise! I hope you trained "Landings without Autopilot"!

A final Warning: Most models are not able to do a "Touch Down" with the Autopilot - so you might want to switch the Autopilot off soon enough, to have a little time to get a feeling for the controls again!

It is fun and good for exercises, using the ILS - especially without the AutoPilot!

Please  find more details e.g. on:

COM/NAV-Radio 2

The second radio is exactly the same as the first -- but you cannot use it for controlling the autopilot!!



The Autopilot (AP) shall support the pilot, especially on long-range flights, by taking over the controls based on predefined data. The AP can do standard procedures much better then a pilot - but it has a very limited understanding of the data it is using, and interprets those data without any intelligence! As an example: If you program the AP to climb to 10.000 ft it will do that perfectly - but at an altitude of about 7.000 ft you will crash! Remember from our first flights? The Mixture has to be adjusted - and the AP does not know that! There are thousands of such happenings!

  So never forget: You are the Pilot in Command -- not the Autopilot!! 

Let us see the functions behind all the controls from left to right:
Once more 2 points:
  1. A blinking display does not indicate an error - it is just the warning you that a new function has been selected and will be activated soon!
  2. Especially when switching off the AP it may take some time before you get back full control. The active settings will be saved for that session!

You find examples for how to use the AP in

    "VFR Cross-Country" for a " first setup for cruising"
    "IFR Cross-Country" for "Climbing" and "Cruising" and "Descending"


There is only one DME for both radios - so you can only watch one distance at a time - but you may switch between the 2 VORs very fast by the selector on the left!
You find an example of using the DME in the part "IFR Cross-Country" chapter "SUNO to NDB REIGA"

IAP: The"IFR-Approach-Procedure"

As you recall from the previous tutorials, when flying VFR, you don’t just point your airplane to the nearest runway to land. Even under VFR you need to fly a pattern. This helps you line up, and helps prevent planes from crashing into one another, which is a Good Thing.

Similarly with IFR landings. There’s a procedure to follow. In fact, there are procedures to follow. Because of the complexity of landing in IFR conditions, there’s no single procedure for all airports. You need to check for your particular airport. In fact, you usually need to check for your particular airport, runway, and navigation equipment.

You can find those IAPs where you also find aeronautical informations for airports, that are e.g.:

e.g.: KLVK ILS RWY 25R

During our "IFR Cross-Country" we will land at Livermore on runway 25R under IFR conditions. So let us take that one as an example to explain:

Livermore has only two instrument approach procedures, big airports have many many more. If you look at nearby San Francisco, you’ll see they have a slew of procedures. There are ILS procedures, GPS procedures, LDA procedures, VOR procedures, . . . I wouldn’t be surprised if they had a procedure for someone with a sextant and an hourglass in there. To learn IFR flight, you’ll need to master all of them (maybe nowadays you can miss on the "sextant" - although old captains of the DC6, Superconstallation, and similar will tell you, that they still had to know how to operate them, e.g. during Transatlantic Flights!).

For Livermore there are only listed 2 IAPs (e.g. on), down near the bottom:
one is the  ILS (Instrument Landing System) approach: ILS RWY 25R
the other a GPS (Global Positioning System) approach:  Radio-NAV (GPS) RWY 25R
Because we want to exercise our ILS-Equipment (and do not have a GPS-equipment) we use the "ILS RWY 25R":

Die <acronym title= These Approach-charts are not really standardized worldwide - but they all contain some common informations: (Sorry. usually those are not as nicely colored as seen here!)
  1. In the upper white part you see general informations like the name, frequencies, etc. 
  2. In the central pink part is the actual plan, as seen from above, especially for the headings to use
  3. In the lower yellow part you see the same from the side, for the altitudes to keep
2+3 together shall give you a 3D view of the IAP. I admit: That is not really easy to read and understand if you are not a graduated Architect or Mechanic - but try to use it more often and your problems will disappear (I hope!).

There are usually a lot more informations at changing locations on the charts. e.g.: There may be "minimum values" for an approach, e.g.
  • You may approach only if there is a minimum visibility, you have a minimum Radi-Equipment, etc. (See here in the green box)
  • The "Missed Approach Procedure", i.e. what to do next if you cannot Touch-Down. (See here in the white box at the top)
  •  Minimum Altitudes per direction you come from, e.g. when on one side are mountains, or buildings, or so.  Those restrictions are in a little circle, cut into directional pieces. (See  the circle at the right, inside the pink area)
  • and an airport-layout. (See the white box at the left side).
  • etc.

Analyzing the IAP:

First let us find the beginning of the procedure, lucky enough there is a special mark for it: The IAF (Initial Approach Fix). Looking into the above pink area we find 2 of those:
  1. In the center of the pink area you find the LOM/IAF REIGA: This is a NDB with 2 functions:
  1. At the right center of that pink area you see the second IAF, that one is named TRACY. There is a "Procedure Turn" attached to that one - so in real life ATC might send us there to wait, when there is much arriving traffic. Finding this one is not that easy - but we learned how to do that in the chapter" Finding a FIX-point": Here we would find it for e.g. a "missed approach procedure (see in the white box at the top!) by two VOR-radials:

Having found the IAFs we can start following the IAP-procedure:
Parts of that procedure are shown in several places on the IAP:
  • at the top, where it says “MISSED APPROACH”
  • in the plan view, where you can see a dashed arrow coming off the end of the runway at the dashed oval on the right, 
  • a pattern symbol at the right of the picture
  • and a series of boxes at the bottom repeating graphically what to do.
In our case, these all tell us to:
1. Climb straight ahead to 1100 feet
2. Make a climbing right turn to 3000 feet
3. Fly to REIGA (compare the frequency and Morse-code!)
4. Fly outbound from REIGA at 062◦
5. Fly a holding pattern at the TRACY intersection

The holding pattern, as you might have guessed, is a place where you can “park” while sorting things out, and has its own set of procedures and techniques which we won’t go into here, because . . . (but have a look into the chapter "Procedure-Turns" in the part "KnowHow".)


Since FlightGear version 2.4. "Map" is an integrated part of FlightGear , although it is still in an experimental mode. (See "menu --> Equipment --> Map").

This current stage of Map covers especially the "Radio-Navigational" needs, for further informations see
» the description in the FlightGear-WIKI
» and the following examples as applicable for the "IFR Cross-Country", that we will do in the next chapter:
MAP example 1
You (the yellow plane symbol in the lower right) just started at KRHV, now flying on runway-heading 310° towards the "airway  334", which follows the (cyan) Radial "SJC 009", which we have set before into our NAV-1, and which we will intercept soon.

The next check will be the crossing of the radials "SJC 009" and "OAK 114" (which is set in NAV-2)  near the fix "SUNOL", which is not marked here by name, because the "Fixes" are not activated (see in the upper left corner!)!

But because "Navaids" are activated you see
» the VORs "OAK" and "SJC" in cyan, because they are active in your 2 NAV-radios
» e.g. in the lower left quadrant you see another VOR "OSI" not in cyan and without Radial, because we do not use it.
"LV" (in the right upper corner) is the identifier for the NDB "REIGA", which is the IAF for our planned approach to KLVK.

 Because "Traffic" is activated, you see the Multiplayers flying in your area. See e.g. "alex" to the left of you and "Godwin" on the dark blue ILS towards KSFO. You should also notice the pointers at those targets:
» "alex" is flying in direction SW and is relatively fast
» compared to "Godwin", who is relatively slow on Final to "KSFO runway 28"
MAP-Example 2
In this picture we changed already the NAV-2 from "OAK 114" to "ECA 229", and are on our way from Fix "SUNOL" to the NDB "REIGA".

The two radials cross at fix "SUNOL" - this time its name is visible because "Fixes" is now activated.

Also activated is "Data", thus we see additional descriptions to the major navigational aids. See e.g.
» KLVK with the runways "07L/25R"  that are 5236 ft long. The magnetic headings are 91°/271°
» REIGA with the identifier/morse-code "LV" and frequency 374 Khz

See also the Fix's "FOOTO" to which we will turn over "REIGA" on heading 75°. And also notice that this segment of way is directly against the traffic on the ILS towards KLVK - so we better keep a safe altitude.
MAP-example 3
In the above we headed for "REIGA". In the meantime
» we turned to a hdg of 075° over "REIGA" towards "FOOTO"
» which is defined by our course of 075° and the crossing radial "ECA 229"
» there we turned to 030°
» and after 2 Min. we turned 180° to a new heading of 210°, back towards the ILS-Localizer REIGA

On this heading 210° we are now going to intersect the ILS 25R of KLVK. Did you notice that that ILS is now in color "cyan"? And the radial "SJC 009"  is not shown any more! Sure: We do not need the "SJC 009" any more and thus switched the NAV1 to the "ILS 25R"!

Also notice that we are close to "TRACY" - the other "IAF" (Initial Approach Fix), and thus very close to the 10 nm radius, that we were not allowed to exceed!
If you have problems understanding those pictures and comments compare it with the "IFR Cross-Country" flight, and especially it's "flight-planning"